Complete Broadcast Radio Station Equipment List (with pics)

Complete Broadcast Radio Station Equipment List (with pics)

by Ray Chan / April 20, 2021 / RF Tech Guides

"The Radio Station Rack Room or the Engineering Room (also known as Central Apparatus Room) is always the most essential part of the entire radio station system, many large broadcast equipment is placed in the rack room such as satellite receivers, FM transmitters, and audio processors, etc, If you want to build a new radio station and don't know how to choose core equipment for the radio station, then this equipment list of a typical radio station rack room can help you very well. ----- FMUSER"

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The list will be divided into few parts, which is corresponding to different types of equipment used in a typical radio station rack equipment room. Let's take a look.

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    Audio Signals Processing Part

    →The next part is the Audio Signals Transmitting Part | SKIP

    In the audio signals processing part, 9 equipment is included, and they are (click to visit):

    1. Broadcast Satellite Receiver
    2. Stereo Audio Switcher
    3. Broadcast Audio Processor
    4. Rack AC Power Conditioner
    5. Monitor Headphones
    6. Rack Audio Monitor
    7. Digital FM Tuner
    8. Audio Fault Alarm
    9. UPS Power Supply

    Excellent broadcasting sound quality is always the primary goal pursued by radio enthusiasts, which is also the first goal pursued by many radio operators. In fact, if you want to pursue perfect sound quality, some key equipment is essential, such as a high-performance audio processor from FMUSER can help you effectively avoid the influence of too much noise (although the price will be more expensive), but it is one of the effective solutions. Of course, as Ray says: "a single thread can't make a cord, nor a single tree a forest". What other broadcast equipment/devices do you need to add besides a high-cost-effective Audio Processor? Let's see what Fmuser has!

    1. Broadcast Satellite Receiver

    How does Broadcast Satellite Receiver work?

    The satellite receiver is used to receive the satellite audio program and input it into the FM broadcast transmitter. And the signal source in the rack room is equivalent to the source of the program broadcasted by the satellite. Satellite TV is a form of the TV program. It can transmit a wireless signal to global TV through the network of communication satellites, radio signals, outdoor FMUSER transmitter antennas, and broadcasting centers. The program source sends the signal to the service provider's Broadcasting Center. The satellite TV receiver is the equipment to receive and decrypt these programs.

    There are four common types of satellite receivers

    • HD receiver
    • General receiver
    • Digital receiver with recorder
    • Encrypted channel receiver

    Tips from Ray - Satellite TV uses a special antenna, usually called a satellite antenna.

    Why Broadcast Satellite Receiver is important?

    Most of them are used to relay free satellite programs because it is very expensive to rent satellites to transmit their own programs, as FmuserRay researches, the utility model relates to an audio frequency amplifier circuit, a single-phase identification and demodulation circuit, an audio frequency amplifier control circuit, and a multi-phase identification and demodulation circuit. After demodulating the audio modulation signal and management code modulation signal fmuser.-net input by a cable broadcasting signal source fmuser.-net, one channel outputs a management code, one channel outputs a control code through the microprocessor, the other channel outputs an audio signal, and the output control code controls the selection of audio signal. Realize the functional control and management of the receiver, so that cable audio broadcasting can achieve high-quality, multi-channel, multi-functional services.

    Tips from Ray - Satellite audio receiver is specially designed to distribute audio programs through satellite to a radio network, which is the most important part of the radio distribution application


    <<Back to Audio Signals Processing Part

    2. Stereo Audio Switcher

    How does Stereo Audio Switcher work?

    The audio switcher is used to detect the audio status of each channel circularly. When switching, there is no audio channel to skip automatically fmuser.-net and the switching delay time is optional. Users can set different lengths of switching delay time on the front panel according to their own needs, which provides an effective guarantee for the safe broadcasting of audio. The audio switcher can transmit a multi-channel audio input signal to the output port. In the case of the multi-channel input signal, it can switch any input signal to the output port.

    Tips from fmuser-ray - Usually, the audio switcher can complete any switching of 1 ~ 16 input and 1 ~ 16 output. It has an infrared remote control function and RS232 terminal communication control function. It can pre-add the RS485 bus interface, and users can easily complete the signal switching in the demonstration process.

    Why Stereo Audio Switcher is important?

    The audio switcher can transmit multiple audio input signals to the output port. In the case of multiple input signals, any input signal can be switched to the output port. These analog and digital audio switchers (some with video) allow you to connect the left and right analog and/or digital audio inputs to one or more outputs. Tips from FM user - When the input is limited, they allow simple switching rather than disconnecting and reconnecting the cable. According to the needs of different industries, the audio switcher not only has an RCA interface supporting an unbalanced audio signal but also has a professional balanced audio XLR interface. www.fmuser.-net The audio switcher is a high-performance intelligent matrix switch equipment specially designed for audio signal display switching fmuser.-net. The stereo audio switcher is widely used in voice engineering, audio-visual teaching, command, and control center, multimedia conference room, and other occasions to complete audio signal switching.


    <<Back to Audio Signals Processing Part

    3. Broadcast Audio processor

    How does Broadcast Audio Processor work?

    The audio processor can process the audio signal received from the satellite receiver. Broadcast audio processors contain specialty multi-band compressors/limiters. The Audio Processor will be the last piece of equipment used before the audio signals are transmitted. An audio processor, also known as a digital processor, is a kind of device to achieve a multi-functional audio digital signal processing effect. As FMuserray considers: We often use audio processing devices when using many large electronic devices. www-fmuser-net It can help us control music or score music, make it produce different sound effects in different scenes, increase the shock of music or score music, and at the same time, improve the quality of music Enough to control a lot of audio functions on site. The internal structure of the audio processor is generally composed of input parts and output parts. Its internal functions are more complete, some with drag and drop programming processing modules, which can be built by users freely, fmuser.-net.

    In general, the internal architecture of a digital processor is generally composed of an input port and an output part. The functions of the audio processing part are generally as follows: the input part generally includes input gain control (input gain), input equalization (several segments of parameter equalization), input EQ, and so on, Input delay, input polarity, etc, fmuser.-net. The output part generally has several common functions, such as signal input distribution, routing (round), high pass filter (HPF), low pass filter (LPF), equalizer (output EQ), polarity, gain, delay, limiter start level (limit).

    Common audio processors can be divided into 4 types:

    • Simple speaker processor

    It is used to connect the mixer to the power amplifier instead of analog peripheral equipment for signal processing.

    • The 8-in 8-out multi-functional digital audio processor

    It can replace the analog system composed of the small mixer and peripheral equipment in the conference system. It has a network interface and can be connected to the computer through Ethernet for programming and online real-time control.

    • Digital audio processor with network audio transmission function

    It is similar to the above two functions, but the audio transmission function of the network is added (CobraNet is generally supported), which can transmit audio data to each other in a LAN.

    • Processing matrix

    This kind of processor is an extremely powerful host, which is usually used in large broadcasting systems or conference centers. Large processing matrices are centralized in a computer room, and the processing control of all rooms is completed by the machine in the main computer room. Therefore, fmuser.-net, no matter one or more rooms are used, the processor in the main computer room must be turned on at any time fmuser.-net. This kind of audio network is based on CobraNet or other protocols of Gigabit Ethernet and supports real-time transmission and control.

    Why Broadcast Audio Processor is important?

    At the simplest level, DSP can be considered as a beautiful and extremely precise tone control. When you combine the processor from fmuser with the measurement function of the real-time analyzer, the tone balance and accuracy of the audio system can be greatly improved by properly trained technicians. Instead of listening to recordings, the voice of humans and musical instruments sound more like performing on the spot. Expert technicians can use stereo equalization to improve the staging and imaging features of your sound system, which can help further improve the authenticity of the listening experience.

    FM The audio processing technology is based on the idea that it can realize this benefit while making the audience any illusion of change. Successful audio processing performs the required electrical modifications while presenting a natural and realistic subjective result.

    U For example, the reduction of dynamic range caused by processing makes listening in noisy environments (especially cars) much more difficult. In music with a wide dynamic range, soft music often disappears completely under the effect of background noise. Few listeners listen to music in a completely quiet environment. If you turn the volume up, the larger channels can be uncomfortable later. In cars, the dynamic range cannot exceed 20 dB without causing these problems. The competent audio processing can reduce the dynamic range of the program without adverse side effects.

    S In addition, broadcast program materials are usually from a variety of rapidly changing sources, most of which are made without considering other spectrum balances. If the multi-band limit is used correctly, the interference between sources can be automatically consistent. FM-user-Ray knows that just as long films are made to maintain a consistent look, multi-band restrictions and consistency are essential to stations that want to develop unique audio signatures and strong positive personalities. At the end of the day, it all has to do with the experience of the audience.

    E In addition, most countries have little tolerance for over modulation, so peak limits must be applied for signals sent to regulated public waves.

    R The performance of the processor must be judged based on many different types of program data used in a given format, and finally, the processor must be judged based on its ability to attract and maintain the target audience of a given broadcaster. Long-term listening is irreplaceable, says Ray.

    In summary, the benefits of using digital audio processors are:

    • Removing the Equalization in Audio

    It can remove the balance added to your music. Automakers have to spend a penny in making cars, Ray says, so they don't use high-quality speakers, they use cheap speakers and add equalizers to make them sound better. This balances "discolors sound" when you add upgraded speakers, which reduces the sound you hear.

    • Summing Your Audio

    Many advanced factory audio systems divide music signals into different speaker sizes. Because you want the new speakers to work at the best performance, the processor aggregates the signals into a single full frequency channel. Now, your installer can choose the music frequency that suits them best, says Ray.

    • Enhancing the Listening Experience

    Digital latency has been added to your music. Have you ever noticed that your voice seems to have been made from the door closest to you? The processor allows us to delay the sound arrival of each speaker. Now, all of this is reaching your ears at the same time. This will allow your voice to appear in front of you, with stage and image effects comparable to intimate jazz concerts or acoustic performances fmuser.-net.

    • Improving Sound Quality and Output Quality

    The carefully crafted equalizer enables us to individually fine-tune each speaker in your new system to maximize its sound quality and output. In summary, we can simply tell you that a carefully designed, carefully built broadcast system and the properly adjusted processor can bring about 100% or higher sound quality improvement.


    <<Back to Audio Signals Processing Part

    4. Rack AC Power Conditioner

    How does Rack AC Power Conditioner work?

    The Power conditioner, also known as a line conditioner, can protect equipment from the surge. It is used to protect sensitive loads by eliminating voltage fluctuations such as spikes, transients, and electrical noise. The power conditioner acts as a buffer between the socket and the system to eliminate voltage fluctuations and radio and electromagnetic interference fmuser.-net that may affect the performance of the system, says Ray. A power conditioner is often used in industrial production and laboratory research, and it is also very common in home electronic applications, such as audio equipment. Power conditioners can be electronic or transformer-based, which helps to correct voltage and waveform distortion and eliminate external electrical noise (i.e. frequency and electromagnetic interference) caused by radio and motor equipment. Unlike surge protectors, surge protectors protect devices from voltage spikes, however, surges and spikes still affect some sensitive electronic devices. Radiofrequency interference (RFI), electromagnetic interference (EMI), and voltage fluctuation can also affect the sound and reduce the sound and image quality of equipment. For example, when a musician hears a buzzing sound from his guitar amplifier and his power conditioner can immediately remove it, fmuser.-net it is claimed to be proof of his magical power conditioner. The only problem is that the buzz is usually caused by a ground loop, and the power conditioner has nothing to do with it. A surge protector can effectively prevent the damage of voltage spikes. However, surges and spikes will not only affect some sensitive electronic devices. Radiofrequency interference (RFI), electromagnetic interference (EMI), and voltage fluctuations can also affect sound, entertainment, and office equipment, thereby reducing sound and image quality.

    Why Rack AC Power Conditioner is important?

    AC power conditioner can protect high-performance audio and video system equipment and has up to 10 or more sockets. AC power conditioner is a typical power conditioner, which can provide a "clean" AC power supply, surge protection, and noise filtering, and avoid equipment damage caused by lightning, surge, and other problems. AC power conditioner is especially suitable for applications where you need to use a noisy power supply, such as home and office applications. Some units have a built-in AVR (audio and video receiver) to compensate for voltage fluctuation. But in fact, UPS (uninterruptible power supply) has its own inverter and battery, which can be used to compensate for low-voltage or high-voltage input power supply, fmuser.-net and provide power filtering and power protection. Its performance is better than that of the AC power conditioner. As Ray says, when power supply filtering is not available, UPS should be the first choice for server and network equipment.

    The advantages of power regulation include:

    • Equipment protection

    Voltage surge protection through a wire, telephone line, coaxial TV input, and LAN connection can lead to system performance degradation or system failure.

    • Noise elimination

    Radio and television stations, mobile devices, electric motors cause noise in the wires - even high current equipment (vacuum, refrigerator) can produce noise.

    • Fluctuation correction of voltage and waveform distortion.

    Types and limitations of power conditioners:

    • Passive filter

    This is the cheapest type of power conditioner that splits the high-frequency noise component - grounded through a capacitor. These provide very basic noise reduction functions.

    • Balance transformer

    This type of power conditioner has a better noise reduction function than the passive inductor-capacitor model (above). It is characterized by an isolation balance transformer, which can balance the AC power supply and produce a more suitable noise reduction effect for audio and video components. Compared with passive filters, they are much more expensive, larger, heavier, and noisy, and their power output is limited due to the damping effect of the balance transformer.

    • AC regeneration

    AC regenerative air conditioner will emit a lot of heat when it is running, but the price is higher, but it can better solve the problems related to noise in the audio and video frequency spectrum. Its working principle is similar to that of a generator, which is used to adjust AC voltage, correct waveform symmetry (distortion), and reduce or eliminate low-order harmonic noise (due to the unbalanced load in AC line) Even or limited noise generated by neighbors to your home), these are the center of known problems. These high-end regulators use automatic voltage stabilizing circuits and microprocessor-controlled variable transformers to provide a completely new AC voltage for your entertainment system without noise-induced fluctuations or surges.


    <<Back to Audio Signals Processing Part

    5. Monitor Headphones

    How does Monitor Headphone work?

    Monitoring headphones, also known as studio earphones, are usually used to monitor recording, reproduce sounds close to the original recording, and pick up and distinguish the types of musical instruments fmuser.-net when sound levels need to be adjusted. In the sound mixing application, the monitor headphones show the least emphasis or pre-emphasis with their excellent specific frequency, so that users can clearly hear the bass, midrange, and treble without "changes (enhancement or weakening)", says fmuser-Ray.

    Why Monitor Headphones are important?

    • The monitor headset has a wide and flat frequency response

    Frequency response refers to the range of bass, midrange, and treble. Most headphones have a frequency response of 20 to 20000 Hz, which is the standard audible frequency range that humans can hear. The first number (20) represents the deepest bass frequency, while the second number (20000) is the highest frequency (treble range) fmuser.-net that the headset can reproduce.

    Having a wide frequency response means that the monitor headset can reproduce frequencies in the standard 20 – 20000 Hz range (sometimes even more than that).

    In general, the wider the frequency range, the better the listening experience can be achieved by headphones as follows:

    1. Copy the frequency used in the actual recording
    2. Produce deeper bass and clearer treble.
    • Monitor headphones don't have bass enhancement

    Monitor headphones balance all frequencies (low, medium, high). Since no part of the sound spectrum is raised, a more accurate listening experience can be achieved. For ordinary listeners fmuser.-net, listening to a lot of bass from headphones is the key to a pleasant listening experience. In fact, some people even use it as a measure of whether a pair of headphones is good or not.

    That's why many commercial headphones today are equipped with "bass enhancement."

    Using monitor headphones is a totally different experience. Because it is designed to reproduce sound accurately, if you record in this way, you will only hear the bass of thud thumping bass. Even so, says FMUSERRay, if you compare it side by side with a pair of (basic) consumer-grade headphones, you may notice that the bass lacks impact.

    • Monitor headphones are usually more comfortable to wear

    As mentioned earlier, monitoring earphones are mainly created for the long-term use of studio equipment of recording engineers, musicians, and artists. If you've ever seen a documentary or a video recording music in it, you know that recording and mixing music usually takes a long time.

    That's why manufacturers of headphones pay more attention to comfort when designing their products. A pair of studio monitor headphones should be comfortable enough to wear for a long time.

    • The monitor headphones are quite robust

    To withstand wear and tear, they are equipped with stronger, more durable materials. Even the cable is thicker and longer than usual because it can resist all kinds of pulling, pulling, and entanglement. But they are also bulkier than consumer-grade headphones.


    <<Back to Audio Signals Processing Part

    6. Rack Audio Monitor

    How does Rack Audio Monitor work?

    The audio monitor is a kind of active equipment, equipped with speakers, can maximize the output power, front digital panel, can be more easily operated. It is also used to monitor whether the input audio program is correct and to monitor the audio quality before it is finally inputted to the FM broadcast transmitter. 

    Why Rack Audio Monitor is important?

    The audio monitor is often used to monitor the sound from any stereo line-level output, to ensure the control of outdoor background music and strict control of the paging system. General audio monitors in the United States are equipped with DC coupling capacitors at each input to maintain signal integrity without distortion, noise, or ground loops (without a transformer). The rack design enables rack-mounted audio monitors to be installed in very compact applications, which reduces the use of inner spaces.

    These units are ideal for use in VTR brackets, mobile production vehicles, teleconference devices, multimedia systems, satellite links, cable TV facilities, and radio stations.

    These units are ideal for use in space-critical environments, such as TV facilities, studios, VTR brackets, mobile production vehicles, satellite links, and virtually any rack-mounted environment that requires multi-channel audio monitoring.


    <<Back to Audio Signals Processing Part

    7. Rack Digital FM Tuner

    How does Digital FM Tuner work?

    The Tuner is used to receive RF signals and convert them to a lower modulated intermediate frequency (IF) or further down-convert to unmodulated baseband.It is a device that receives radio frequency (RF) transmission such as radio broadcast and converts the selected carrier frequency and its associated bandwidth into a fixed frequency suitable for further processing. The transmitting stations and radio receivers receive tiny signals. It is then converted to if through the tuner. It can also be converted by direct synthesis. Then the RF signal is brought to the detector, which acquires the RF signal and brings it to the audio frequency. The audio amplifier then amplifies the signal for playback through headphones or speakers. The tuner selects the resonant frequency by changing the amount of current flowing through it (or something like that). Its job is to separate a sine wave fmuser.-net from thousands of radio signals received by the antenna. In this case, the tuner will be tuned to receive a 680000 Hz signal. The working principle of the tuner is resonance. In other words, Ray says, the tuner resonates and amplifies at a specific frequency, ignoring all other frequencies in the air.

    Tuners basically take a reference wave and compare that wave against what the antenna picks up, and there are several kinds of tuners:

    • AM
    • FM
    • Analog TV -NTSC
    • Analog TV - PAL
    • Digital

    Why Digital FM Tuner is important?

    The FM tuner can receive FM signals from other stations and input them into the transmitter. It can broadcast programs from other radios. In the early days of broadcasting, the resonance of the antenna and its related inductance and capacitance characteristics were really the items to "dial" the frequency you want to listen to. You don't actually change the length of the antenna, but you can tune the resonance by changing the inductor (coil) or capacitor connected to the antenna. The output signal is an AC voltage, and by rectifying it with a diode (then called a "crystal"), you can extract the signal modulated as a carrier amplitude change. As FMUSER-Ray considers, it's all without any batteries! 

    FM-But in fact, the antenna in an ordinary modern radio is not a component that "plugs" into the selected broadcast frequency. It's true that the antenna circuit should resonate in the band you're interested in, fmuser.-net but then the broadband signal is mixed with the sinusoidal signal generated internally in the radio in the analog component, which subtracts the frequency and makes the rest possible. Radio operates in a very easy-to-handle frequency band (called if). In the mixer, you can adjust the reception effect in the modern superheterodyne radio receiver. It is much easier to synthesize the precise tuning frequency than to change the resonance of the antenna circuit.

    User-The rest is not real physics, but the difference between analog radio and digital radio lies in the circuit. Basically, analog radio extracts modulated signal from intermediate frequency, which is amplified and sent to loudspeaker or radio output. In digital broadcasting, the signal represents the digital version of the audio, just as the wave or MP3 file on the computer is a digital representation, it can be converted back to the analog signal that can be sent to the speaker. The advantage of this is that the bandwidth requirement of digital signals in the air may (potentially) be reduced, fmuser.-net so you can accommodate more signals in the same "airspace", and digital signals are not susceptible to noise. As Ray writes "yes" because unfortunately, many commercial digital radio / TV stations do not, says Ray.

    FMUSER. Let me repeat that in "digital" radio, the components that select the receiving frequency are still analog, but the mixed (tuned) frequency is digitally controlled and selected.

    Another interesting thing is software-defined radio (SDR), which is the principle of converting if (or in some cases directly antenna frequency) to a digital signal and demodulating it by a full software upgradeable signal processor fmuser.-net. Since it is much easier to program new software than to weld electronic components, this has aroused wide interest among radio enthusiasts.

    If you include SDR and apply it without using any intermediate frequency (connecting the antenna directly to the analog-to-digital converter and signal processor), there is a pure software way to adjust the signal source according to your requirements, although it is not the most common way for digital radio to work at present.


    <<Back to Audio Signals Processing Part

    8. Audio Fault Alarm

    How does Audio Fault Alarm work?

    By monitoring the audio input, the audio fault alarm can synchronously monitor multiple audio channels to ensure the quality of the audio input

    Why Audio Fault Alarm is important?

    In addition to monitoring the audio channel, the most important thing is that the audio fault alarm can detect the audio fault and send the alarm in time.


    <<Back to Audio Signals Processing Part

    9. UPS Power Supply

    How does UPS Power Supply work?

    An uninterruptible power supply (UPS), also known as a standby battery, is very sensitive to the fluctuation of the input power supply which provides backup power when your regular power source fails fmuser.-net or voltage drops to an unacceptable level. It is a kind of standby continuous power supply system that supplies power to the equipment when the main power supply of the equipment is disconnected. UPS consists of a battery, which will "plugin" when the device detects a power failure of the main power supply, providing energy stored in the battery, fmuser.-net, supercapacitor, or flywheel, providing near-instantaneous protection for the interruption of the input power supply so that the power-off device can keep running for at least a short time. UPS equipment also provides anti-surge protection. The size and design of UPS determine how long it will supply power. The small UPS system can provide power for several minutes, which is enough to turn off the computer power orderly, while the large system has enough battery power to last for several hours until it is taken over by the generator.

    The common ups are divided into the following three types:

    • Standby UPS
    • Online UPS
    • Online Interactive UPS

    Adding an uninterruptible power supply to your radio station is a good way to ensure that the power is interrupted at an important time

    • The function of UPS is practical and simple
    • Absorb relatively small surge.
    • Eliminate noisy power supply.
    • Continuous power supply for equipment during line drop.
    • The equipment will be shut down automatically in case of power failure for a long time.
    • Monitor and record the power status.
    • Displays the voltage / current consumption of the device.
    • Restart the equipment after a long power failure.
    • Displays the voltage on the current power line.
    • Provide alerts in some error situations.
    • Provide short circuit protection.

    Why Uninterruptible Power Supply is important?

    An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is designed to protect critical loads from specific power supply problems, including spikes, power failures, fluctuations, and power outages. UPS is particularly prominent for hardware protection. The UPS power supply in the rack room can stabilize the power supply and supply power to the equipment fmuser-net in a short time to prevent equipment failure or non-operation caused by an unstable grid or to prevent the equipment from stopping working due to power failure or tripping fmuser.-net. In some application scenarios that are vulnerable to the negative impact of power failures, such as telecommunications equipment or computers, sudden power failure will cause machine damage and may cause the loss of some important files, or even casualties. fmuser.-net For a super large professional radio station, UPS is necessary. UPS battery system can protect you and your radio station from damage in case of power failure so that your expensive radio station equipment can automatically fmuser-net run for a period of time without a video monitor until the main power takes over. In hospitals, banks, and other important institutions, these precious minutes may be a matter of life and death. UPS can respond immediately when the main power is cut off, says Ray, and provide powerful power for the system, and then give it to the backup system immediately after it is started and running.


    Back to Audio Signals Processing Part or Back to Content

    Audio Signals Transmitting Part

    ←The previous part is the Audio Signals Processing Part- | SKIP

    →The next part is the Electrical Control Panel Part | SKIP

    In the audio signals transmitting part, 9 equipment is included, and they are (click to visit):

    1. FM Radio Transmitter
    2. Coaxial Rigid Transmission Line
    3. RF Coaxial Cable
    4. Transmission Line Connectors
    5. RF Multiplexer
    6. FM Transmitting Tower
    7. Antenna Power Divider
    8. FM Broadcast Antenna
    9. RF Dummy Load
    10. Antenna Waveguide Dehydrators

    Tips from Fmuser-Ray: Unlike the audio processing equipment, the equipment used for audio transmitting is responsible for transmitting the radio signals by radio transmitters, radio towers, and radio antennas, etc.

    1. FM Radio Transmitter

    How does FM Radio Transmitter work?

    FM radio transmitter is used to grab the sound from your radio studio and broadcast the sound through an FM antenna to your radio receiving area. The transmitter can be a separate electronic device or a circuit in another electronic device. The transmitter and receiver combined in one unit are called transceivers. In technical documents, the term "transmitter" is usually abbreviated as "XMTR" or "TX". The purpose of most transmitters is to fmuser-net carry out radio information communication over a certain distance. Information is provided to the transmitter in the form of electronic signals, such as an audio (sound) signal from a microphone, a video (TV) signal from a camera, or, in a wireless network device, a digital signal from a computer. The transmitter combines the information signal to be carried with the radio frequency signal to generate radio waves, which is called the carrier signal. This process is called modulation. Information can be added to the carrier in several different ways in different types of transmitters. In AM transmitter, says FMUSER.RAY, the information is added to the radio signal by changing the amplitude. In the FM transmitter, add it by slightly changing the frequency of the radio signal. Many other types of modulation are also used.

    A radio signal from the transmitter is applied to an antenna, which radiates energy in the form of radio waves. The antenna can be enclosed inside the housing or connected to the outside of the transmitter, such as in portable devices such as mobile phones, walkie-talkies, and garage door openers. In a more powerful transmitter, the antenna may be located on the top of the building or on a separate tower and connected to the transmitter via a feeder (i.e. transmission line).

    Why FM Radio Transmitter is important?

    FM radio transmitter is the most important equipment in an FM radio station fmuser- net because it's the only equipment that transmits audio signals and broadcast through an FM antenna. The FM broadcast transmitter is common in large and medium-sized radio stations. fmuser.-net In the epidemic in 2021, the importance of the FM radio transmitter has become more and more prominent, such as the radio broadcast of the car church under the epidemic, through the contactless broadcast. Even in the car, as Ray says, just to twist the buttons of the car radio, you can receive the high-quality prayer of the pastor's face-to-face, fmuser -net the FM broadcast transmitter has played an important role in more and more FM broadcasting applications.


    <<Back to Audio Signals Transmitting Part

    2. Coaxial Rigid Transmission Line

    *Rigid Transmission Line

    How does Coaxial Rigid Transmission Line work?

    A coaxial rigid transmission line is often used inside the rack room to connect to a four-port coax switch, test dummy load, backup FM radio transmitter, and so on.  It is also used outside the rack room to go up the tower to the antenna. fmuser.-net RF signals are routed from the transmitter to the antenna through coaxial cables with air or foam dielectric, rigid coaxial lines, or through rigid waveguides with a square, round or elliptical cross-section - researches from Ray. The size of the cables and rigid lines varies depending on the power to be transmitted and on the frequency range.

    Why Coaxial Rigid Transmission Line is important?

    A rigid Transmission Line is generally used to transmit high-frequency signals similar to optical signals transmitted by optical cables. It is a connecting part of the transmitter, which is used with the cables. fmuser-net The electromagnetic wave reflects forward and forth between the core line and feeder. The shielding layer can prevent the external interference signal from coming in, and also efficiently reduce the loss of useful signals in the radiation.


    <<Back to Audio Signals Transmitting Part

    3. RF Coaxial Cable

    *FMUSER RG8U RF Coaxial Cable for FM Radio Transmitter

    How does RF Coaxial Cable work?

    Coaxial cable is a kind of circular cable with a concentric electric conductor and insulating material layer. Its structure is simple. The central conductor part is usually solid or braided copper thin wire. FMUSER- net Around the wire is the dielectric layer composed of insulating material, and the outer part of the dielectric layer is surrounded by lead or metal foil and protected by an insulating jacket. The external metal shielding layer is usually grounded at both ends of the connector to shield the signal and act like a stray interference signal dissipation place. Coaxial cable is designed to transmit high-frequency or broadband signals under RF, which is usually used to transmit RF energy. The difference between the coaxial cable and other shielded cables is that the size of the cable and connector is controlled to provide accurate and constant conductor spacing, says Ray.

    The key to coaxial cable design is the strict control of cable size and material. Together, they ensure that the characteristic impedance of the cable is a fixed value. High-frequency signal will be partially reflected when impedance mismatch occurs, which leads to error.

    According to Ray's research. the typical coaxial cable structure is as follows:

    • Typical Types of Coaxial Cable
    • There are many types of coaxial cables, some of which include:
    • Hard coaxial cable
    • Triaxial cable
    • Rigid coaxial cable
    • Semi-rigid and Semi-flexible Coaxial Cable
    • flexible Coaxial Cable
    • Radiation cable
    • Leaky Coaxial Cables
    • 50 Ohm RF Coaxial Cables
    • RG Coaxial Cables
    • Braided Coaxial Cable
    • Trunk Cables

    Why RF Coaxial Cable is important?

    Coaxial cable has excellent performance at high frequency. It is composed of an insulated central conductor covered with a shielding layer. The signal is transmitted between the shielding layer and the central conductor. This structure ensures that the signal is enclosed in the cable, prevents electrical noise from interfering with the signal, fmuser.-net and keeps the signal inside the cable, so it has excellent EMI control / Shielding performance, which is also why coaxial cables are often used to transmit low loss high-frequency electrical signals, such as carrying radio signals (such as broadcasting applications where transmitters and receivers are connected to antennas), fmuser - net video signals (such as cable TV signals), measurement signals and data signals (such as network systems, telephone trunks, broadband Internet cables Coaxial cables are also used in automotive, aircraft, military, and medical equipment, as well as dish-shaped satellite antennas, radio and television antennas.


    <<Back to Audio Signals Transmitting Part

    4. Transmission Line Connectors

    *RF and Microwave Multiplexer 

    How do Transmission Line Connectors work?

    The RF feeder connectors are used to connect two items of high power radio frequency rigid or semi-rigid (flex line) coaxial transmission line. Typically these are only required in very high power transmitting installations (10s of kW to MW) where the feedline diameters may be several inches. One side of the connection is denoted as a male connection, or bullet, while the other side is denoted as the female connection, or cup.

    Why Transmission Line Connectors is important?

    During broadcasting, RF heating of the inner and outer connectors causes differential expansion between them. With the original design rigid transmission line, fmuser - net this expansion is compensated for with sliding metal bullets. Eventually, this produces wear, hot spots—and burnout. It is recommended to replace this equipment every seven years to avoid sudden failure.


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    5. RF Multiplexer

    *RF and Microwave Multiplexer 

    How does RF Multiplexer work?

    A multiplexer is a device that allows digital information from several sources to be routed onto a single line for transmission to a single destination. A demultiplexer does the reverse operation of multiplexing. It takes digital information from a single line and distributes it to a given number of output lines. Multiplexing is the process of transmitting information from more than one source fmuser.-net to a single signal by shared media. In any communication system that is either digital or analog, we need a communication channel for transmission. This channel can be a wired or a wireless link. It is not practical to allocate individual channels for each user. Therefore a group of signals is combined together and sent over a common channel. For this we use multiplexers.  We can multiplex simulations or digital signals. If an analog signal is multiplexed, this type of multiplexer is called an analog multiplexer. If the digital signal is multiplexed, this type of multiplexer is called a digital multiplexer.

    Why RF Multiplexer is important?

    We can transfer a large number of signals to a single medium. The channel can be a physical medium such as a shaft cable, a metal conductor, or a wireless link, and a plurality of signals must be processed once. Therefore, the transfer cost can be reduced. Even if the transmission occurs on the same channel, they do not necessarily happen at the same time. Typically, multiplexing is a technique in which multiple message signals are combined into a composite signal so that these message signals can be transmitted on the common channel. As Rays found, in order to transmit various signals on the same channel, the signal must be separated to avoid interference between them, and then they can easily separate them at the receiving end.


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    6. FM Radio Transmitting Tower

    How does FM Transmitting Tower work?

    Broadcast towers are tall structures designed to support antennas for telecommunications and broadcasting, including television, typically used for transmitting a range of communication services including radio and television. 

    Why FM Transmitting Tower is important?

    The tower will either act as an antenna itself or support one or more antennas on its structure because they have to send powerful signals over long distances, including microwave dishes. These antennas emit radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic energy (EME). But you don't need anything that big on your TV or radio at home: a much smaller antenna will do the job fine.


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    7. Antenna Power Divider for Multi-layer Antenna

    *FMUSER FU-P2 FM Antenna Power Divider - More.

    How does Antenna Power Divider work?

    An antenna power divider is a device that divides power (equally) between two output ports from one input port or combines two antennas as an array and presents them as a 50-ohm load to a transmitter/receiver combination or transceiver. In the ideal case, a power divider can be considered lossless, but in practice, there is always some fmuser-net power dissipation. The Divider/Combiner can be a quarter-wave section of the transmission line or it can be a can half wavelength section. Theoretically, a power divider and a power combiner can be the exact same component, but in practice, there may be different requirements for combiners and dividers, such as power handling, phase matching, port match, and isolation. Power dividers are often referred to as splitters. While this is technically correct, engineers typically reserve the word “splitter” to mean an inexpensive resistive structure that splits power over a very wide bandwidth but has considerable loss and limited power handling.

    Why Antenna Power Divider is important?

    When you need to use a multi-layer antenna and your transmitter has only one RF interface, you need to use the antenna power divider. Its function is to divide the single RF interface of the transmitter into "multiple" RF interfaces and connect these interfaces with the multi-layer antenna. At the same time, the power divider will divide the RF power of the transmitter equally into each layer of the antennas, says Ray.


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    8. FM Broadcast Antenna

    *FMUSER Circularly Polarized CP100 FM Antenna - More.

    How does FM Broadcast Antenna work?

    The antenna is an important part of all radio equipment, and usually, the antenna is used with a transmitter or receiver. Taking an FM antenna as an example, an FM antenna acts as a medium to change RF electrical signal into an electromagnetic wave fmuser.-net of similar frequency. Usually, when transmitting signals at the transmitter, antenna terminals receive the current provided by radio transmitters, and then the antenna radiates the energy from the current of the radio transmitter in the form of radio waves; when it reaches the receiving end, the antenna at the receiving end will intercept a part of the power of the radio wave radiated from the antenna of the transmitter, and then generate current at the receiving terminal, fmuser. net and finally be absorbed and converted by the receiver at the receiver. For example, the radio can broadcast the radio program from the radio station, which is the receiver, and the radio station is the transmitter. It is worth noting that the antenna can be designed to transmit and receive radio waves equally (omnidirectional) or in a particular direction (directional or high gain or "beam" antenna) equally in all horizontal directions. The antenna may include components fmuser.-net that are not connected to the transmitter, paraboloid reflectors, horn, or parasitic elements that guide radio waves to beams or other required radiation patterns. If you want to extend the radiation range of these radio waves, you have to have a strong receiver.

    Why FM Broadcast Antenna is important?

    The importance of antennas is that they can transmit or receive radio waves and signal transitions (such as text, pictures, and information) according to actual position (transmitting or receiving end), and common antenna types have metal bars and dish antennas, in FM broadcast The field, the FM broadcast antenna is divided into transmit terminal antenna and receiving antenna. The receiving end antenna can convert the electrical signal to radio waves, and the receiving end antenna converts these radio waves signals into electrical signals. The FM antenna and the FM transmitter are the keys to almost all forms of telecommunications. In our daily lives, fmuser- net we often encounter wireless communication, such as radio stations, people can listen to radio programs through radio, is the FM antenna in telecommunications One of the important application scenarios. Since the antenna is the basis of wireless communication, there are many other daily applications, such as TV signal transmission, satellite communications, remote sensing, and biomedical applications.


    <<Back to Audio Signals Transmitting Part

    9. RF Dummy Load

    How does RF Dummy Load work?

    In the process of RF system testing, the dummy load (also known as dummy antenna) acts as the actual "antenna". It is used to simulate the load of the electrical device, which is connected to the output of the radio transmitter. It can be used to test and configure the transmitter or receiver without radiating radio waves. A dummy load usually consists of a resistor connected to a radiator that dissipates power from the transmitter, says Ray. 

    Why RF Dummy Load is important?

    In addition to allowing you to accurately adjust the parameters of the transmitter and receiver, the dummy load can also prevent damage to the device caused by misoperation. Professional RF engineers all know that dummy load is a tool for loading equipment load to test on an amplifier or RF system. If you use the antenna directly instead of any load fmuser-net during the test, not only can you not tune perfectly, the heat generated by RF power will directly damage your transmitter or receiver. The dummy load can be simulated the perfectly tuned antenna connected to the amplifier can avoid improper parameter setting or damage of RF equipment. Therefore, we strongly recommend that you choose a reliable dummy load and use it timely and correctly when testing RF equipment to avoid unnecessary loss.


    <<Back to Audio Signals Transmitting Part

    10. Antenna Waveguide Dehydrator

    *Antenna waveguide dehydrator

    How does Waveguide Dehydrator work?

    Waveguide dehydrator is used to provide dry compressed air for itself and signal transmission towers (such as microwave, radar, antenna system, TV satellite ground) and related components in various fields. It is worth noting that in order to ensure the quality of signal transmission, the compressed air pressure provided by the general waveguide dehydrator fmuser.-net will be higher than the atmospheric pressure. On the one hand, it prevents the water from entering, avoids the condensation of the air, and achieves the driest effect; on the other hand, it avoids the influence caused by the weather. A small pressure vessel is installed in the waveguide dehydrator to ensure the stop-start cycle rather than the continuous operation of the integral compressor.

    The differential pressure switch controls the operation of the compressor. The container stores dry air at elevated pressure and are pumped into the waveguide at a lower pressure set by the regulator. At present, many waveguide dehydrators on the market have built-in electronic timing and humidity monitoring systems, which can detect some unexpected problems of waveguide dehydrators at the fastest speed, that is, the problem caused by insufficient storage of dry air. Based on Ray's research, the operator can deliberately introduce a small amount of air to ensure that the air in the waveguide system is replaced regularly as needed to maximize the benefits of the waveguide dehydrator.

    Why Waveguide Dehydrator is important?

    Because the particles in the waveguide will cause reflection and signal loss or attenuation, the dehydrator can keep a clean, dry, and particle-free environment in the waveguide, and let the airflow in the feed pipe, so as to prevent the antenna SWR from being too high or wire short-circuited caused by humidity. Therefore, the waveguide dehydrator plays an important role in most communication applications.


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    Electrical Control Panel Part

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    In the electrical control panels part, 6 primary equipment is included, and they are (click to visit):

    1. Knife Switch
    2. Electricity Meter
    3. Power and Energy Monitoring Meter
    4. Surge Protection Device
    5. Circuit Breaker
    6. Programmable Logic Controller

    “The equipment in the electrical control panel part is used for monitoring and controlling the working parameters of the equipment in a radio rack room, which ensures the safety of the equipment.

    1. Knife Switch

    *A Two-pole Knife Switch

    How does Knife Switch work?

    A knife switch (also known as knife switch or disconnector) is a kind of switch with moving contact -- knife switch, which is wedged (or separated) with the fixed contact -- knife holder on the base to connect (or disconnect) the circuit. A knife switch is one of the most simple and widely used low-voltage electrical appliances in manual control apparatus. It is generally used in AC and DC low-voltage (no more than 500V) circuits that do not need to be fmuser.-net cut off and closed frequently. Under the rated voltage, its working current cannot exceed the rated value fmuser.-net. In the machine tool, the knife switch is mainly used as a power switch, it is generally not used to turn on or cut off the working current of the motor. The commonly used knife switches are HD type single throw knife switch, HS type double throw knife switch (knife switch), HR type fuse knife switch, HZ type combination switch, HK type knife switch, HY type reverse switch, and HH type iron case switch, etc, says Ray-fmuser.

    Why Knife Switch is important?

    1. The knife switch isolates the power supply to ensure the safety of circuit and equipment maintenance or as infrequently connecting and breaking the load below the rated current.

    2. The knife switch breaks the load, such as infrequently connecting and breaking the low-voltage circuit with small capacity or directly starting the small capacity motor.

    3. When the knife switch is in the off position, it can be obviously observed, which can ensure the safety of the circuit maintenance personnel.

    The knife switch isolating the power supply is also called the disconnecting switch. Knife switch for isolation is generally a no-load on-off device, which can only make or break "negligible current" (refers to the capacitive current of the bus with voltage, short cable, or voltage transformer). Some knife switches have certain on-off capabilities. When their on-off capability is suitable for the required on-off current, they can turn on or off part of electrical equipment fmuser-net or complete equipment under non-fault conditions. The knife switch used as the disconnector must meet the isolation function, that is, the switch fracture is obvious, and the fracture distance is qualified. During the maintenance of electrical equipment, it is necessary to cut off the power supply to make it separate from the live part, and maintain an effective isolation distance. What Ray found: It is required that the withstand voltage level of overvoltage can be withstood between the split sections. As Ray says. the knife switch is used as a switching device to isolate the power supply.

    Knife switch and fuse are connected in series to form a unit, which is called knife switch fuse group or disconnecting switch fuse group; when the movable part (moving contact) of knife switch is composed of fuse carrying parts with fuse link, it is called fuse knife switch or fuse disconnecting switch fmuser. net. The switch fuse is combined with auxiliary components, such as operating lever, spring, arc knife, etc. The load switch has the ability to turn on or off the load current under non-fault conditions and has a certain short-circuit protection function.


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    2. Electricity Meter

    *A Traditional Electricity Meter

    How does Electricity Meter work?

    An electricity meter (also known as an electricity meter, electric meter, electrical meter, or energy meter) is a device to measure the electrical energy consumed by residential, business, or electric equipment fmuser-net. Electricity meters are divided into digital meters and analog meters. The installation and final billing of electricity meters are usually for power companies. The staff of power companies will install electricity meters where they need to use electricity meters, and periodically monitor and charge the users through the parameters on the meters. When your home gets electricity from a wire, a set of pinions in the meter moves. The revolution is recorded by the dial you see when you look at the meter fmuser.-net. The rotational speed is determined by the consumed power. The working principle of some other energy measuring devices, says Ray, are similar to electric meters, such as gas meters, is to measure the force of moving gas in the pipeline. With the increase of gas flow, the dial rotates faster, which means more gas is used. It is worth noting that electricity reading is often in kWh and whether it is a digital meter or an analog meter, the kWh of electricity consumed displayed on the display will not be reset. When the staff of the power company read the electricity consumed in the current month (week) displayed on the meter, they only need to subtract the number from the end of the month to calculate the bill amount of each household and charge.

    Why Electricity Meter is important?

    You may not pay special attention to the changes of parameters on the meter, but you should know how to observe the numbers displayed on the meter panel, so that you can monitor how much energy you use in each month or week compared with the previous month or week, and check the bill amount you are required to pay by the power company and calculate by yourself through some simple calculations The difference between the actual amount of the bill, to ensure that do not spend unnecessary money.

    Although the types of electricity meters on the market are not uniform at present, there are many advantages of using digital electricity meters for both power consumers and power energy suppliers. For consumers, the electricity price in the period of strong demand (6:00 p.m - 11:00 p.m) is often lower than that in the period of low demand (0:00 a.m - 7:00 p.m) a. If you use the traditional automatic meter reading (AMR), you will spend more on the electricity bill, because AMR will track your electricity consumption and the power company will charge you electricity based on the average price of the previous cycle fmuser.-net. The use of digital meters can accurately monitor the power consumption so that your power energy supplier can determine the specific number of electricity you use, and also determine when you use the electricity, so as to avoid unnecessary electricity bill expenses. For power energy suppliers, the use of smart meters is convenient for their staff. Instead of counting the electric power consumed by each household,  they can directly read the parameters on the meter panel through remote communication, which greatly reduces the operation cost and labor cost of power companies.


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    3. Power Monitoring and Control Equipment

    • Current Transformer

    *Window Type Current Transformer

    How does the Current Transformer work?

    Current transformer (CT) is a kind of instrument transformer, which can convert high voltage current to low voltage current, that is, convert current from higher value to proportional current and then to lower value. According to its functional architecture, current transformers can be divided into a bar type, wound type, and window type. According to its nature, CT can be divided into two types: protective current transformers and measuring current transformers fmuser- net. Among them, protective current transformers are responsible for measuring current, energy, and power (used together with other measuring equipment), while measuring current transformers are used together with a trip coil, relay, and other protective equipment.

    Why the Current Transformer is important?

    The current transformer is one of the important elements of the power system, which is widely used in the measurement and monitoring of high current and high voltage. By using a standard ammeter, the current flowing in the AC transmission line can be safely monitored. For example, the current transformer can be used as the core driver of many large commercial and industrial power meters. As Ray says, current transformers are also used to provide current proportional to power to these devices and to isolate the measuring instruments from high voltage circuits.


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    4. Surge Protection Device

    *Surge Protection Device

    How does Surge Protection Device work?

    Surge protection equipment (SPD), formerly known as transient voltage surge suppressor (TVSS) or secondary surge suppressor (SSA), is the most commonly used and effective type of overvoltage protection, which is designed to prevent voltage spikes fmuser .net or "transients" from damaging electronic equipment, which is usually connected in parallel on the power supply circuit of load. As an important part of the electrical installation protection system, when transient voltage (such as a lightning strike or power line damage) appears suddenly on the protection circuit, SPD limits the transient voltage and transfers the current back to its source or ground. When the voltage reaches a certain point, the surge protector can simply redistribute additional energy by virtue of the function of a pressure-sensitive valve in essence. With the correct voltage, the current will flow normally. Surge protection equipment fmuser -net can also be used at all levels of the power network, SPD is in a high impedance state under normal operating voltage and does not affect the system. When transient voltage occurs on the circuit, SPD enters the on the state (or low impedance) and transfers the surge current back to its source or ground. This will limit the voltage or clamp to a safer level. After transient transfer, SPD will reset to its high impedance state automatically.

    One should compare different available devices once identifying the power distribution system to which the SPD is to be connected, 5 things need to be taken into consideration:

    • Maximum Continuous Operating Voltage (MCOV).
    • Voltage Protection Rating (VPR) or Voltage Protection Level (Up).
    • Nominal Discharge Current (In) Rating.
    • Indication Status.
    • Surge Current Capacity or Maximum Surge Rating.

      Why Surge Protection Device is important?

      Surge protection device (SPD) can prevent machine shutdown, improve the system and data reliability and eliminate equipment damage caused by transient and surge of power and signal lines. The surge may be generated from outside, such as the generation of lightning or the internal generation of electrical load conversion. The sources of these internal surges (65 percent of all transients) can include open and closed loads, operation of relays or circuit breakers, heating systems, motors, and office equipment, as Ray considers.

      Surge protection device (SPD) is applicable to almost any facility in the industry, commerce, and residence, and the following are some typical surge protection equipment applications:

      Communication circuit, alarm signal circuit, home appliances, PLC distribution, standby power supply, UPS, equipment monitoring, critical load (under 1000 Volts), medical equipment and HVAC equipment, etc

      According to national electrical regulations (NEC) and ANSI / UL 1449, SPD is specified as follows:

      • Type 1: Permanent Connection

      It is designed to be installed between the secondary of the service transformer and the line side of the service disconnect overcurrent equipment (service equipment). Their main purpose is to protect the insulation level of the electrical system to prevent external surges caused by lightning or switching of the common capacitor banks.

      • Type 2: Permanent Connection

      It is designed to be installed on the load side of the service disconnected over current equipment (service equipment), including the location of the brand panel. Their main purpose is to protect sensitive electronic equipment and microprocessor-based loads from the impact of residual lightning energy, motor-generated surge, and other internal surge events.

      • Type 3: SPD Connection

      Using point SPD installed at a minimum conductor length of 10 m (30 feet) from the electrical service panel to the point of use. Examples include cable connections, direct plug-in, and socket type surge protection devices


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      5. Circuit Breaker

      *Electric Mini Circuit Breaker

      How does Circuit Breaker work?

      The circuit breaker is essentially a reset fuse. Inside each circuit breaker is a spring hooked on a small piece of solder (a fusible alloy). Each circuit breaker is connected to a wire running through the house. The current flows through the house through the solder. The circuit breaker will not trip and the solder will melt when the connected wiring is in danger of overheating. As long as the current jumps above the safe level, fmuser-net the circuit can be cut off to avoid overheating, melting, and potential fire. Different from the fuse that can only be operated once and must be replaced, the circuit breaker can be reset automatically fmuser.-net or manually after the alloy is cooled to resume normal operation. The manufacturing process of circuit breakers makes them well used in circuit devices of various sizes, such as single household appliances or urban high-voltage power supply circuits. Circuit breakers may be more effective than safety switches, but they are not switches. As Ray says, the circuit breaker and safety switches are not interchangeable. Therefore, it is not recommended to use circuit breakers as switches.

      Why Circuit Breaker is important?

      A circuit breaker is a safety device that prevents damage to the motor and wires when the current flowing through the circuit exceeds its design limit. This is achieved by removing current from the circuit in the event of an unsafe condition. Unlike the switch, the circuit breaker automatically performs this operation and turns off the power immediately, or turns off the power immediately. In this way, it can be used as an automatic service protection device against fire and electric shock.


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      6. Programmable Logic Controller

      *Programmable Logic Controller Device

      How does the Programmable Logic Controller work?

      Programmable logic controller (PLC) is a kind of industrial automation solid-state general control electronic equipment, and it is a flexible and powerful control solution, which is suitable for almost all applications. Common PLC includes CPU, analog input, analog output, and DC output fmuser.-net. In practical application, PLC can be understood as a kind of digital computer. Its function is to make decisions based on logic fmuser.-net for the whole automatic production process, control industrial machines, monitor the inputs from pressure sensors, temperature sensors, limit switches, auxiliary contacts, and pilot devices, and then connect them from the connected sensors or input devices Receive the signal, process the data, and trigger the output according to the pre-programmed parameters.

      The general components of PLC include:

      • HMI – in order to interact with PLC in real-time, users need HMI or a human-machine interface. These operator interfaces can be simple displays with text readers and keyboards, or large touch-screen panels more similar to consumer electronics, but either way, as Ray says, they allow users to view the information in real-time and input it into the PLC.
      • Communication – in addition to the input and output devices, the PLC may need to be connected to other types of systems. For example, a user may want to export application data recorded by a PLC to a monitoring and data acquisition (SCADA) system that monitors multiple connected devices PLC provides a series of ports and communication protocols to ensure that PLC can communicate with these other systems.
      • Programming Device – used to input programs into the memory of the processor.
      • Power Supply – Although most PLCs operate at 24 VDC or 220 VAC, some have isolated power supply.
      • CPU – check the PLC regularly to prevent errors and perform functions such as arithmetic and logic operations.
      • Memory – system ROM permanently stores fixed data used by CPU, while RAM stores input and output device information, timer value, counter, and other internal devices.
      • I / O Section – an input section that tracks field devices such as switches and sensors.
      • O / P Part – this part provides output control for pumps, solenoids, lamps, and motors.

      Why the Programmable Logic Controller is important?

      Five things to understand when programming PLC:

      • Understand how programs and I / O scans work
      • Learn how to handle I / O
      • Understanding internal memory addressing
      • Familiar with instruction set (ladder diagram)
      • Familiar with programming software (create a project, add logic, download to the controller, monitor online and edit online)

      According to the input and output, PLC can monitor and record the running data, such as the productivity or working temperature of the machine, automatically start and stop the process, and generate alarms when the machine fails.

      In short, PLC is the modular "brain" of the automation process, which you can plug into various settings. They are robust and can withstand harsh conditions such as high temperature, cold, dust, and extreme humidity .fmuser.-net, but also their programming language is easy to understand, so they can be programmed easily. In the case of switching under load, fmuser.-net the relay will cause a high-temperature arc between the contacts, which will make the contacts in the relay degenerate due to closing, and eventually lead to equipment failure. Replacing the relay with a PLC helps to prevent overheating of the contacts.

      The programmable controller has become the main automation method in many industries and applications, which can provide accurate, reliable, and easy to modify control. In addition to discrete and procedural functions, Ray also finds that the controller can perform complex tasks such as motion, data logging, web server access, and e-mail.


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      Peripheral Supporting Part

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      →The next part is the Cable Connection Part | SKIP

      In the peripheral part, 9 equipment is included, and they are (click to visit):

      The equipment in the peripheral supporting part is used to display the condition of the rack room and optimize the better working environment for the broadcast equipment in a radio rack room fmuser.-net, including providing cool and dry air, fire extinguishing, etc. 

      1. Air Conditioner

      How does Air Conditioner work?

      For the radio room, air conditioning is an essential cooling tool. Some radio equipment, such as high-power FM radio transmitter, will inevitably heat up when it runs for a long time. The cold air from the air conditioning can well control the whole temperature of the room, cool down the radio equipment, and avoid unnecessary machine failure caused by too high temperature, says Ray.

      <<Back to Peripheral Supporting Part

      2. Electrical Junction Box

      How does Electrical Junction Box work?

      The junction box is a device that uses a metal or plastic shell as the common junction point of the branch circuit, which can accommodate and safely protect the electrical connection of the structure from the damage caused by some natural affections such as corrosive elements or environment, as well as humanistic malicious or unintentional tampering fmuser.-net. The junction box is also an important part of the transmission system in the transmitter room of the radio station, and these electrical shells are usually used to protect the electrical connection of the structure. According to FMUSERRay's searches, there are two sizes: a three-wire box with a size of 2 inches by 3 inches and a depth of 2.5 inches, and a box with five or more wires with a size of 2 inches by 3 inches and a depth of 3.5 inches.

      <<Back to Peripheral Supporting Part

      3. Emergency Light

      How does Emergency Light work?

      Emergency lighting refers to the light source device with an independent battery power supply which is started in case of loss of external power (such as power failure, fire, etc.). In non-emergency situations, emergency lighting will automatically charge. Though the brightness of the emergency lighting light source is only 19% to 21% of the typical light source brightness fmuser.-net, it extends the Sustainable Lighting duration of emergency lighting. Emergency lighting can help the maintenance personnel evacuate safely from the emergency as fast as possible.

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      4. Clock

      How does a Clock work?

      The Clock generally refers to any periodic system used to measure, verify, hold, and indicate the time of the equipment. Generally, the clock has a minute and a second. The clock takes minutes as the smallest scale unit and takes every 12 hours as a cycle fmuser.-net. The clock is also one of the indispensable pieces of equipment in the equipment list of the radio room, which can help the equipment maintenance personnel set the equipment according to the specific time.

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      5. Surveillance Camera

      How does Surveillance Camera work?

      The monitoring camera is actually a part of closed-circuit monitoring. For the radio station, the operation status of the equipment in the rack room needs a clear and real-time system for remote monitoring. In this way, we can not only understand the real-time operation status of the broadcasting equipment, but also facilitate data observation and information collection fmuser.-net, but also make a timely response when the equipment in the rack room breaks into unexpected conditions. The maintenance personnel in the computer room no longer need to run back and forth when the equipment in the rack room goes wrong, which saves the labor cost and improves the work efficiency of the equipment, says Ray.

      A general closed-circuit monitoring system consists of the following elements

      • monitor
      • Digital Video Recorder
      • movie camera
      • Cable

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      6. Indoor-Outdoor Thermometer

      How does Indoor-Outdoor Thermometer work?

      An indoor and outdoor thermometer is a kind of thermometer that can provide real-time indoor and outdoor temperature. It allows you to measure the external temperature without going out of a confined space. Of course, it needs a remote sensing device to measure it. In addition to measuring the outdoor temperature, it can also measure the internal temperature, humidity, or air pressure of the confined space. The indoor and outdoor thermometer is especially suitable for use in extreme weather conditions fmuser.-net. For radio stations, the purchase of an indoor and outdoor thermometer can help the maintenance personnel of the computer room to determine whether the internal conditions of the computer room are suitable for the operation of the equipment and make timely adjustments because some invisible atmospheric parameters (such as air humidity and temperature) are too high or too low, which will directly affect the operation of those broadcasting equipment bought at a high price or even guide the operation of the equipment damage to core components, says Ray.

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      7. Fire Extinguisher

      How does Fire Extinguisher work?

      The fire extinguisher is a kind of portable equipment that can extinguish the flame caused by the combustion of various combustible materials by discharging non-combustible materials (such as water, carbon dioxide, etc.) A common fire extinguisher is a hand-held cylindrical pressure vessel. You just need to pull out the pull ring, hold the nozzle, and aim at the combustibles to put out the fire. For the room of the radio station, a fire extinguisher is necessary. Timely fire fighting can minimize the loss. After all, no one wants to burn down the millions of broadcasting equipment in one fire.

      • Foam Fire Extinguisher
      • Dry Powder Fire Extinguisher
      • Cleaner Fire Extinguisher
      • Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguisher
      • Water Mist Fire Extinguisher
      • Wet Chemical Fire Extinguisher

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      8. Exhaust Fan

      How does Exhaust Fan work?

      An exhaust fan refers to a kind of equipment used to exhaust harmful substances (such as excess water, pungent smell, toxic smoke, etc.) in the indoor air to the outdoor by extraction. In the machine room of the radio station, some equipment will inevitably run abnormally due to too many impurities in the air, especially moisture fmuser.-net. A professional radio room should have a very dry, ventilated, cool environment for the broadcast equipment, and the exhaust fan plays such a role to provide the equipment a dry, ventilated and clean environment.

      Back to Peripheral Supporting Part or Back to Content

      Cable Connection Part

      ←The previous part is the Peripheral Supporting Part- | SKIP

      →The next part is the Backup Supporting Part | SKIP

      In the peripheral part, 6 equipment is included, and they are:

      • Audio Cable
      • USB Cable
      • RS-232/486 Control Line
      • Power Plug-in
      • Network CableEquipment Label

      Different broadcast equipment shares different interfaces, so different connecting wires are needed, fmuser.-net, for example, a USB cable needs to connect with a USB interface, and a radio transmitter needs to use an RS232/486 control line to connect with the power supply fmuser.-net. The connecting wire is one of the most inconspicuous peripheral auxiliary devices. But, without these connecting wires, those expensive broadcast devices can not start and operate normally, says Ray.

      1. Audio Cable

      The audio cable is used to ensure the input and output of the audio signal

      2. USB Cable

      The USB cable is used to connect the device that needs to be connected to the computer.

      3. RS232/486 Control Line

      At present, all communication interfaces commonly used for remote detection and control in the radio room.

      4. Power Plug-in

      The power plug-in is used to connect the equipment with the power supply.

      5. Network Cable

      The network cable is used to connect the devices that need to be connected to the network

      Back to Cable Connection Part orBack to Content

      Backup Supporting Part

      ←The previous part is the Cable Connection Part- | SKIP

      In the backup supporting part, 6 equipment is included, and they are:

      • Equipment Label
      • Indoor Ladder
      • Maintenance Toolbox
      • Operation Recording Manual
      • Duty Record
      • Equipment Replacement
      • Radio Receiver

      Before the maintenance personnel repairs the equipment in the broadcasting room, they often need some repair equipment, such as an aluminum alloy ladder, repair kit, replacement parts, etc fmuser.-net. After the maintenance personnel completes the equipment maintenance of the broadcasting room, they need to record the equipment data. At this time, they need to use pamphlets such as the maintenance record manual, which can record the real-time status of the broadcasting equipment, says Ray. To test the operation status of the broadcasting equipment, they need to use broadcasting receiving equipment such as radio. The following equipment list can provide a reference for you, if you need more professional guidance, please contact FMUSER!

      1. Equipment Label

      The equipment label is used to label the equipment for data recording.

      2. Indoor Ladder

      When the maintenance personnel of the machine room need a broader maintenance vision or can not reach a certain part of the tall machine, they can use the ladder.

      3. Maintenance Toolbox (Screwdriver, Wrench, Universal Watch, etc.)

      Every maintenance personnel needs to carry a complete set of machine room equipment maintenance kits. When the machine has unexpected faults, the maintenance tools in the kit can effectively help maintenance personnel to repair the machine.

      4. Equipment Operation Recording Manual

      It is used to record the working state of the machine before and after maintenance can help the maintenance personnel to quickly determine whether the machine is working normally and whether the working parameters need to be adjusted. At the same time, it can also improve the fault tolerance rate when the machine is overhauled again in the future.

      5. Duty Record

      It is used to record the person in charge of equipment maintenance, which is convenient for tracing responsibility.

      6. Spare Parts for Equipment Replacement

      Broadcasting equipment is a highly precise instrument, in which there are many necessary parts of different sizes. When the equipment fails, it is necessary to have spare parts immediately for the replacement of damaged parts, so as to ensure the operation of the equipment.

      7. Radio Receiver

      A device used to receive radio signals from a radio station and convert them into radio programs


      Back to Backup Supporting Part or Back to Content

      We're the Expert for Building Your Radio Station

      This list of necessary broadcasting equipment for a typical radio station is the most detailed, though not the most complete. For any radio station, the radio transmitter, transmitting antenna, and other professional broadcasting equipment determine the program quality of the radio station. The excellent broadcasting room equipment can provide your radio station with excellent sound quality input and output so that your broadcast and your program audience are really connected together. For FMUSER, ensuring a better experience for the radio audience is also one of our missions. We have the most complete turnkey radio station solution and decades of experience in radio equipment production and manufacturing. We can provide you with professional advice and online technical support to build a personalized and high-quality radio station. CONTACT US and let us help you build your radio station dream!

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      "This post was first edited by Ray Chan, who is one of the seasoned senior employees of Fmuser and an expert in Google search engine optimization. He is dedicated to creating clear, no-fuss reading content for radio amateurs and professional customers who need radio station equipment. When he's not writing or researching, he loves playing basketball and book reading"





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